Fair originated in Europe in the early Middle Ages in an environment where trade was of intermittent, sporadic, and supplying clients mainly in rare and expensive imported goods.
The narrowness of the market and unsafe trade routes encourage merchants to join in caravans for collaborative commerce, focusing specially selected and well-protected areas (near the walls of the castle or monastery, etc.) where large numbers of people gathered at the intersection of trade routes and in places where public meetings were held, the big church festivals and other public events.
In the early Middle Ages, especially where there has not yet developed cities as centers of handicrafts and trade fairs play an important role as the only major exchange points of concentration.
Along with the large fairs – wholesale centers where a growing place occupied by heavy goods (bread, wine, ores and metals, salt, cloth), there were regional (regional), and small local fairs, where dreams come seasonal products.
Quite often fairs have a certain specialization – such as wine, fabrics.